Research activity is one of the key purposes of Universities, leading to public outcomes and subject to peer review. While extensive statutory and regulatory standards exist to govern research practice where it is deemed necessary (e.g. Clinical Trials, Data Protection), more generally research is governed by institutional policies based on established practices, methodologies and principles. Some sets of principles are also grouped into “Concordats”, official agreements, which might be either voluntary or a requirement to gain access to funding.

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