Uniac - July 2022

36 The models reviewed all demonstrate the following key elements: 2.1 Principles Most institutional models make primary reference to a set of principles. This reflects the emergence of some workload allocation frameworks from joint negotiation with trades unions. These require that models be “fair” and “transparent”. What is meant by “fair” is not ordinarily defined but can be extrapolated from the model characteristics, i.e., as a minimum, the model should consider part-time and probationary staff and follow certain employment and equality laws. (A broader definition of “fair” is considered later in the paper.) One institution demonstrates fairness of the model through its co-development with academic staff and its regular review. “Transparent” is also left undefined but ordinarily means, in these circumstances, that themodel principles, characteristics, and process of allocation are completely visible and open to scrutiny. This is meant to mitigate any misinterpretation (and therefore potentially unfair) allocation. The role of managerial judgment or discretion is a feature of all models and is also returned to later on. 21 Pressure Vessels: The epidemic of poor mental health among higher education staff A report by the Higher Education Policy Institute21, published prior to the pandemic, identified a primary cause of poor mental health in higher education institutions as escalating and excessive workloads. (The report raised several concerns with workload models, which feature in section 3, below). The third principle that all models share is their purpose, which is to “avoid overload”. 2.2 Scope of activities All models include teaching, research, and administration. However, some models have broadened these activities to include “teaching and scholarship” so that the allocation is more linked to the requirements of the employment contract. For one institution, “research” includes “scholarship” and “knowledge exchange,” rather than these being separate categories. “Administration” includes leadership roles, and, for one institution, administration extends to governance and includes Committee membership. Corporate social responsibility has ordinarily applied to companies rather than to higher education institutions but, as public bodies, most institutions have a remit to undertake activity that has a positive social and environmental impact. This is materialised through strategies and initiatives around delivering on the OECD’s Sustainable Development Goals to the formation of new academic roles in social responsibility or research impact. The comparison shows that, for research2. Institutional Models